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Pros and cons of Wind Energy: Advantages and challenges
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Author | Jaime Ramos

Together with solar power, wind energy coincides in being the most iconic and leading renewable energy in the sector. Across generations, humans have inherited techniques to use the kinetic energy of moving air. The wind enabled seas and oceans to be crossed and cereal grains to be crushed. Today, the aim is to gradually alleviate the demand for energy that lies ahead.

Although wind power is inseparable from other renewables, it does have its own identity. It represents 6.8% of the global electricity generation mix. It is, therefore, a key piece of the renewables puzzle for achieving sustainable energy goals.

Advantages of wind energy

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This may be largely thanks to the advantages associated with the generation of wind energy.

The economic benefits of wind

The US Department of Energy (DOE) considers wind energy to be one of the most profitable sources of energy. In fact, it heads the renewables sector in the US with a share of 15%. It estimates a cost of between 1-2 cents per kWh without taking into account taxes. Taken as a long-term investment, prices tend to remain stable, which cannot be said for other sources of energy.

It also contributes to the generation of employment. In the United States, there are around 100,000 workers in the wind sector. This figure is expected to rise to 600,000 by 2050.

It is clean and sustainable

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Wind energy helps maintain good air quality, as it does not release any hazardous air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects. Its sustainability standards are excellent. On the one hand, wind is an endless supply.

On the other, we have the versatility of solar farms. Divided into onshore and offshore farms, they have the advantage of using large surfaces far away from residential areas, with the corresponding consequences for rural economies or the vast ocean spaces.

Disadvantages of wind energy

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Wind energy does have some disadvantages. Energy distribution and transportation is one of them. In general terms, the energy is generated far away from cities, which is where it is needed. This entails the installation and maintenance of a specific network.

Although it does not have a detrimental effect on air quality, it does have an impact on the environment. It modifies the landscape and creates noise, i.e. noise pollution. Although its most negative impact is on local wildlife. Birds and bats are killed by the blades, affecting the populations and altering the ecosystems in the area.

The global challenge with wind energy

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Nevertheless, wind energy has grown at a staggering rate in recent years. Until recently, Europe had been at the forefront of its development, but now the United States and China have taken over.

Wind generation is one of China’s main priorities in its bid to reach zero emissions by 2060. In 2020, China increased its wind capacity by around 100 GW, a rise of nearly 60% on the previous year. This alone would be enough to power almost three times the number of homes in the UK.

For the International Energy Agency, the achievement of the goals established by the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 to combat climate change, involves neutralizing the carbon emissions produced in electricity generation. The share of coal in the energy mix must be reduced by 14% each year. Wind energy is one of the solutions that can contribute to this.

Images | iStock/Halfpoint, iStock/aslihangulkas, iStock/Its all about the shot, iStock/Thampapon

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