IA y Big Data para eliminar los atascos de Xi'an, China
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Autor | Jaime RamosFamosa por sus guerreros de terracota, su muralla y por ser la última parada oriental de la Ruta de la Seda, la ciudad china de Xi'an supera los ocho millones de habitantes. Su densidad poblacional hace que sea una de esas urbes en los que la movilidad se ha convertido en un desafío.En los últimos años, Xi'an ha adoptado, casi de forma obligatoria en términos de sostenibilidad, una serie de medidas: peatonalización de calles, fomento de la red de transporte público con hasta 7.800 autobuses y la apuesta por las bicicletas eléctricas.

¿Cómo pueden ayudar el Big Data y la IA a paliar los atascos de Xi'an?

A pesar de esto, los atascos de Xi'an, lejos de reducirse, siguen en aumento y han pasado a formar parte del ADN de sus calles. Se deben a dos factores fundamentales: un centro urbano de vías incapaces de absorber la densidad del tráfico y un parque automovilístico creciente. En la actualidad se pueden contabilizar más de dos millones de coches matriculados allí.Replantear el trazado urbano no es una solución. La muralla histórica y rectangular abraza a Xi'an, impidiéndole ampliar sus avenidas. Por eso, las autoridades están recurriendo a las últimas alternativas que nacen de la inteligencia artificial y el Big Data.Esta es la razón de ser del proyecto de la compañía Hikvision, empresa con participación estatal china que se dedica a desarrollar equipos de videovigilancia para fines civiles y militares.

Recopilar información del tráfico en tiempo real

Atasco en Xi'anLa colaboración entre el ente de tráfico en Xi'an, sus expertos en urbanismo y Hikvision ha puesto a funcionar un sistema autogestionado por inteligencia artificial para comprender mejor el flujo de vehículos y anticiparse a determinadas situaciones, como las retenciones.Para ello, el proyecto cuenta con una serie de instrumentos. Por una parte, están aquellas tecnologías que propician la recolección de datos sobre la realidad del tráfico: cámaras inteligentes, sensores en la infraestructura del tráfico y apps móviles que cosechan información sobre el transporte.Por otra, esta cantidad de datos masiva recala en el centro de control de tráfico implementado por la policía de Xi'an. Allí, el sistema analiza los datos mapeados y actúa en consecuencia. Por ejemplo, se pueden coordinar los tiempos de espera en semáforos en función de la densidad de la circulación.

El tráfico en Xi'an es ahora un 10% más fluido

Rotonda con tráfico en Xi'an, ChinaEl sistema aprende sobre el tráfico en la ciudad para modificar las reglas del juego en los momentos precisos. Basado en la IA, permite construir diferentes algoritmos para gestionar los recursos viales y facilitar el tránsito. Se trata de adelantarse al atasco antes de que se produzca, afinando con las diversas soluciones.El modelo aporta, además, una valiosa herramientas en términos de prevención de incidentes y seguridad vial. Así, en su primera fase experimental, el proyecto ha logrado un incremento en la fluidez del tráfico de en torno al 10%, junto a una reducción del 12% en el tiempo medio de los desplazamientos urbanos. La capacidad de detección de incidentes ha aumentado también su efectividad.Con todo, parece complicado que los embotellamientos se puedan erradicar de forma definitiva, aun cuando el coche autónomo sea una realidad. Pese a los diferentes escenarios que propicia la IA para mejorar la circulación, los límites físicos de una ciudad como Xi'an con más de dos millones de vehículos seguirán pesando. Sin duda, los centros urbanos continuarán enfrentándose a un cambio en el modelo de transporte tradicional.Imágenes | iStock/Steve_Bramall, iStock/jacus, Hikvision

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